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Today's numberCurrent number (#№ 14, 2019)

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## Operational Semantics of Reflex

Reflex is a process-oriented language that provides design of easy-to-maintain control software. The language has been successfully used in several safety-critical cyber-physical systems, e. g. control software for a silicon single crystal growth furnace. Now, the main goal of the Reflex language project is development a support for computer aided software engineering targeted to safety-critical application. This paper presents formal operational semantics of the Reflex language as a base for applying formal methods to verification of Reflex programs.

## Safety Analysis of Longitunal Motion Controllers during Climb Flight

During the climb flight of big passenger planes, the pilot directly adjusts the pitch elevator and the plane reacts on this by changing its pitch angle. However, if the pitch angle becomes too large, the plane is in danger of an airflow disruption on the wings, which can cause the plane to crash. In order to prevent this, modern planes take advantage of control software to limit the pitch angle. However, if the software is poorly designed and if system designers have forgotten that sensors might yield wrong data, the software might cause the pitch angle to become negative, so that the plane loses height and can - eventually - crash. In this paper, we investigate on a model for a Boeing passenger plane how the control software could look like. Based on our model described in MatLab/Simulink, it is easy to see based on simulation that the plane loses height when the sensor for the pitch angle provides wrong data. For the opposite case of a correctly functioning sensor, our simulation does not indicate any problems. This simulation, however, is not a guarantee that the control is indeed safe. For this reason, we translated the MatLab/Simulink-model of the controller into a hybrid program in order to make this system amenable to formal verification using the theorem prover KeYmaera

## Constructing Verification-Oriented Domain-Specific Process Ontologies

User-friendly formal specification and verification of concurrent systems from various subject domains are active research topics due to their practical significance. In this paper, we present the method for development of verification-oriented domain-specific process ontologies which are used to describe concurrent systems of subject domains. One of advantages of such ontologies is their formal semantics which makes possible formal verification of described systems. Our method is based on the verification-oriented process ontology. For constructing a domain-specific process ontology, our method uses techniques of semantic markup and pattern matching to associate domain-specific concepts with classes of the process ontology. We give detailed ontological specifications of these techniques. Our method is illustrated by the example of developing a domain-specific ontology for typical elements of automatic control systems.

## Towards automated error localization in C programs with loops

The most recent trends in the C-light verification system are MetaVCG, semantic labels appropriate for verification condition (VC) explanation and symbolic method of definite iterations. MetaVCG takes a C-light program together with some Hoare's logic and produces on-the-fly a VC generator (VCG), which in turn processes the input program. Hoare's logic for definite iterations is a good choice if we try to get rid of loop invariants. Finally, if a theorem prover was unable to validate some VCs we could follow two ways. Obviously, we could revise/enrich specifications or/and underlying proof theory to prove the truth of VCs. Or, perhaps, we could concentrate upon establishment of falsity, which meant there were errors in annotated program. This is where semantic labels play crucial role providing some natural language comments about wrong VC as well as a back-trace to the error location. The newly developed ACL2 heuristics to prove VC falsity is the main theme of this paper.

## Proving properties of Discrete-Valued Functions using Deductive Proof: Application to the Square Root

For many years, automotive embedded systems have been validated only by testing. In the near future, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) will take a greater part in the car’s software design and development. Furthermore, their increasing critical level may lead authorities to require a certification for those systems. We think that bringing formal proof in their development can help establishing safety properties and get an efficient certification process. Other industries (e.g. aerospace, railway, nuclear) that produce critical systems requiring certification also took the path of formal verification techniques. One of these techniques is \emph{deductive proof}. It can give a higher level of confidence in proving critical safety properties and even avoid unit testing.
In this paper, we chose a production use case: a function calculating a square root by linear interpolation. We use deductive proof to prove its correctness and show the limitations we encountered with the off-the-shelf tools. We propose approaches to overcome some limitations of these tools and succeed with the proof. These approaches can be applied to similar problems, which are frequent in automotive embedded software.

## On parallel composition of Finite State Machines with timed guards

Finite State Machines (FSMs) are widely used for analysis and synthesis of digital components of control systems. In order to take into account time aspects, timed FSMs are considered. In this paper, we address the problem of deriving a parallel composition of FSMs with timed guards and output delays (output timeouts). When the parallel composition is considered, component FSMs work in the dialog mode and the composition produces an external output when the interaction between components is terminated. We formally define the parallel composition operator for FSMs with timed guards (TFSMs) and show that unlike classical FSMs, a "slow environment" is not sufficient for describing the behavior of a composition of deterministic TFSMs by a deterministic FSM with a single clock. Although the set of deterministic FSMs with timed guards is not closed under the parallel composition operator, some classes of deterministic TFSMs are still closed under this operator and the paper contains some examples of such classes.

Ontological Approach to Organizing Specification Patterns in the Framework of Support System for Formal Verification of Distributed Program Systems
Ontological Approach to Organizing Specification Patterns in the Framework of Support System for Formal Verification of Distributed Program Systems
(p. 111-132)

The article describes the structure of the ontology of specification patterns from the texts of technical documentation. This ontology combines patterns of known classifications of requirements with new patterns. The ontology allows the recording of Boolean pattern combinations of the following types: qualitative, real and branching time, with combined events, quantitative characteristics of events and patterns, and simple statements about the data. Examples of the requirement patterns for the real vacuum control system of the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope are given. The scheme of intellectual support system for formal verification of distributed program systems is outlined.